Resume References: When To Include Or Exclude
For the majority of job applications you will not need to include any references with your resume.
If you decide to do so and they have not been requested this could be detrimental to your application, simply because you are prioritizing references over other relevant skills or qualifications which could be included in this space and add value to your resume.
The most likely scenario for your jobsearch will be that the employer requests references from you after a preliminary interview or in any case near the end of the application process.
This is because hiring managers will only want to contact references of those few applicants who are shortlisted after the interview stage in order to save time and effort. It is time-consuming for employers to call or send messages to your referees and doing so can become counterproductive and inefficient due to the time spent unless you are in the running for a job.
The only time it is acceptable to include references with the resume in a job application is when they are requested directly in the job vacancy description. When this is the case, we recommend only including them on a separate piece of paper as a reference page.
TOP TIP: For those job applications that do not specifically request professional references from the jobseeker, it is not advisable to include them but it is always wise to be prepared!
For other resume resources, you could use an online resume builder to help you create a winning resume from the very beginning.
When To Include References On A Resume
Every word on your resume should be packed with value. Typically, you have one to two pages to explain why youre qualified and well-positioned for the job, and hiring managers only have a short time to read it.
Because references are not always a part of the interview process, you are taking up limited resume space to provide what may end up being irrelevant to employers in this phase. Even including the phrase references upon request on your resume can be unimportant. If their interview process includes references, employers will ask you to provide them.
There are a few rare scenarios in which including references on your resume may be acceptable. If you are in an industry that accepts case studies or testimonials on the resume, it may be appropriate to include the person and contact information for which these apply.
Additionally, it is acceptable to include references if the job description not only requires you to include references but explicitly states that they should be included directly on your resume. If not, you should include your reference list in a separate document.
Who Is A Good Reference For Your Resume
Its important that all the references in your resume are all deliberately selected individuals.
Everyones aunt thinks that they are special, but what does your previous manager think about your work ethic?
To figure out whos a good reference for you, you should take personal experience into consideration: that means what stage in your career youre currently in.
Because youd list different people at different points in your career.
If you are a student or recent graduate with little to no work practice, you would want to get references from:
- Guidance tutors or counselors
- Course teachers and professors
Any of these people can speak positively about your best skills, qualities, and experiences.
When you have some professional background, however, even at an entry-level position, you have more variety in selecting a good reference.
You could use former colleagues or managers as well as project, master, doctorate supervisors from your most current studies.
If you are a professional candidate, this process becomes simpler as your preferred references will be more acquainted with giving and requesting references.
- If you dont have a lot of professional references to count on, you can reach out to just about anyone that can provide you with a valuable character reference.
- If a friend works in the company you are applying to, you could also use them as a reference.
Other important things you should consider:
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Including References On A Resume Is Simply A Waste Of Space
You only get a small number of pages, usually 12 pages in the private sector, to share your career narrative and convince employers that you are qualified for the job they’re filling. Don’t waste any of this precious resume space to include references something an employer won’t need to look at until you’re much further along in the candidate selection process.
Instead, focus on providing the details that will convince a recruiter or hiring manager to contact you for an interview. Remember, your resume is designed to get you the interview. The details you highlight on the resume should support this goal.
While it varies from company to company, most employers won’t ask for your references until they’re ready to reach out to them. This typically doesn’t happen until you’ve made it through the initial interview rounds and are among the final candidates for a job. If, for any reason, an employer wants your references earlier in the process, rest assured they’ll give you a chance to provide them. There’s no need to place references on your resume when they won’t be used until you’re one of the final candidates.
That said, you should brainstorm a list of potential references as soon as you start submitting job applications so you’re ready when an employer requests your references.
Should I Put Reason For Leaving On My Resume
Jurors said the overriding reason for acquitting Cruz was the lack of credibility of some witnesses The Arizona Republic June 2 1995. Immediately after a poll in June 2016 showed that the Leave campaign was 10 points ahead the pound dropped by a further one per cent.
Acceptable Reasons For Leaving A Job Job Interview Advice Job Interview Tips Job Interview Preparation
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How To Include References In Your Cv
When formatting a reference list for your CV, you can either include them at the end of your CV or format them as a separate document. Follow these steps to properly format your reference list in either case:
Why Are References On A Resume No Longer Used
Sort of like video killed the radio star, we can thank the internet for killing the idea of references on a resume. The short answer is: references on a resume are usually sensitive information and should not be widely distributed due to privacy concerns. Theres also the idea of digital etiquette, which dictates you shouldnt mention people will-nilly, opening them up to unexpected calls and messages. Such frivolous use of references on a resume can get you a very bad rep in many professional circles.
Before the 1990s, when you couldnt send mail without licking a stamp, resumes were relatively private documents that were printed on paper, enclosed in an envelope and dropped in a mailbox. Sure, a resume might be passed around an office, hand to hand, but this didnt make the references names, addresses or phone numbers accessible to millions.
That all changed with the electronic revolution, which turned resumes into digital documents that actually could be accessible to millions. Today you can post your resume on LinkedIn or any number of other totally public job-search websites. So do you think your old boss would be thrilled to know that youve put his name, title, employer, phone number and email address in front of potentially billions of people? Probably not.
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Does The Employer Call Every Reference
It depends on the employer and how much time they have. If they were able to get enough information about you from the first two or three references to make a hiring decision, they likely wont call the rest. List your references by order of preference, meaning that if you want them to call a specific individual first, you should put them at the top of the list. Of course, that doesnt guarantee employers will start calling at the top and go down the list.
First Let Your References Know That Youre Applying For Jobs
You should always make contact with the person youd like to use as a reference before you list them as a reference. This helps them know what to expect when the employer calls them. Provide them with as much information as you can about the job and let them know about any key skills or achievements they might include when speaking with the hiring manager.
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Employers Will Search For References
Potential employers get in touch with past employers, teachers, and personal contacts to verify your character, abilities, and qualifications.
When youre interested in making a big purchase, like a car or a house, you ask other people whove purchased something similar for their opinion. You talk to the past owners to get an honest personal review of the product, which goes beyond specification digits and all the fabulous things the salesperson told you.
Similarly, when an organization is looking to hire a new employee, they run a reference check to understand how they perform.
Almost all job applications require you to put a list of references they can get in contact with on a resume.
In theory, job references are entirely out of your control. You cannot force your last boss to sing praises of your work, nor should you!
However, there are still ways to avoid a negative reference and get one to secure the job. Here we point out some of them.
How To List References
Before you begin your job hunt, gather your references onto a Professional Reference Page. Include each references name, title, organization, phone number, and email address.
List your references starting with your most impressive or important reference.
Dont annotate your application with resume references available upon request. This outdated practice only uses up valuable space and restates something that every hiring manager already knows.
Instead, create a dedicated references page separate from your resume, and attach it to your application.
Next, list each reference like this:
Proper professional references format
Company / University your reference works atFull address of your references company / universityPhone numberEmail address
Never include the personal address of your reference on your reference page, because hiring managers dont contact references via snail mail. Plus your reference may not want you to share their personal information with strangers either.
Underneath each entry on your resumes reference page, you should also make a note clarifying your relationship with the reference, and how long youve known or worked with them.
Finally, if you want to save time formatting your reference page, download our resume references template and fill it in yourself:
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Most Employers Do Not Require References Up Front
Employers and recruiters are sorting and sifting through hundreds of resumes to determine which candidates make the first cut and get an interview. During this first pass, they are not likely to contact any references. It would not be efficient to contact references during this stage. They would only waste time. They will want to talk to you first before putting in the effort to reach out to anyone on your behalf. If after the interview the recruiter or hiring manager would like to contact any references, they will ask for them. At this time , it is appropriate to give a reference page.
Why Do Employers Request References
When employers request references, they typically do so because they want to confirm that candidates have included honest information in their applications and have answered interview questions truthfully. Reference checks also provide employers with the chance to learn more about a candidates skills and past job performance. If employers are checking your references, theres a good chance that youre one of the final candidates. This doesnt mean that youve got the job. It just means that youve made a strong impression and may soon be hired.
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Should I Put References On A Resume
The answer to whether or not to put references on your resume can vary.
The general rule of thumb when is actually to not include references on your resume.
This is because employers are unlikely to reach to references until the interview phase, making the inclusion of them on an initial resume typically unnecessary.
This does not mean that there are never scenarios in which you will need to know how to properly list references.
For specific jobs and in certain situations, you may be asked or required to include a list of references within or alongside your resume.
When you need strong references, it’s important to structure them so that they stand out and impress the hiring manager, landing you the pivotal interview.
In this guide, we will be covering the basics of how listing references on your resumes and when to know itâs time to use references.
Plus, we will discuss alternatives to sending references that can help you in situations where sending a reference may be a difficult task.
How Many References Should You Have
Most job seekers should have between three and four references on their reference page.
However, if youre applying for a position that requires extensive vetting like a senior-level role, you should include between five and seven professional references.
But remember that all of your references should be high quality. Each reference should be able to meaningfully attest to your professional strengths and character. Dont include more references just to hit a higher number.
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On Including References On Resume
Despite its worth in boosting your chances for a job, the list of references, however, should not be put on your resume. Career coaches and hirers agree with this. What should you do instead?
Write your references list on a separate page. This is how you should present it. Just like the other application documents, label it with your name, plus the word references at the top portion. For example, Jane Doe References.
With a dedicated reference page, it could serve as the last page of your resumenot a section.
Note: There may be times job interviews tackle references but hirers will ask you to furnish a copy. Further, certain job descriptions and job ads require a list. In such cases, put references on your resume.
In A Narrative Citation You Name The Author In Your Sentence And Place The Page Number After The Quote
It should be printed on resume paper. You should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year. The alphabet number reference system is commonly used within . In a narrative citation, you name the author in your sentence , and place the page number after the quote. Include the page number in the parenthetical citation. the so called american citation format, in which the source is cited in the text and not in a footnote. Journal title “references” should appear on the . When writing business letters, you’ll use a reference line if you are applying to a job that has a reference number. You distinguish between them by using small latin letters: Your name, address, and phone number should appear at the top of your reference list. Issue number (if present, in round .
the so called american citation format, in which the source is cited in the text and not in a footnote. If a piece of work is cited more than once, the same citation number must be. “references” should appear on the . The number system is especially handy for citing equations, because you can simply insert the citation number logically as you introduce the equation to avoid . Same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year.
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Having A Master Reference List Ready:
It is helpful to have a complete “master” list of references already prepared, even if you are currently not looking for a job. This way, whenever you are asked for your references you will not struggle to come up with appropriate contacts on short notice. Gather together your professional contacts along with their names, titles, organizations, phone numbers, and email addresses and keep them handy.
Getting Recommendations And Having Reliable References On Your Resume Can Be A Tough Task
Even tougher can be the task of knowing how to make the most of such references. Several factors determine whether the recommendations you get will do you any good or wont.
Ranging from knowing how to get your reference across to the employer to know which of the references are good enough for you, the task is tricky.
However, you can easily manage it given the right research and familiarity with a recommendation’s limitations.
An excellent way to start is by making a list of potential references that have a reasonable opinion of your professional capacity and integrity.
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Try To Neutralize Bad Job References On Your Resume
It is also illegal for a past employer to give a negative reference that defames your character, yet it continues to happen.
The founder of Allison & Taylor, a job reference check firm, Jeff Shane, spoke about the employee verification their company does. She said:
“Unfortunately, bad references are far more common than most people realize. About half of the reference checks we perform come back with negative comments.”
While many companies may have the policy to inform only the job title and employment dates, employees frequently violate such policy. Providing a lousy reference may be inevitable for some people.
If youre worried about getting a bad reference, call your former boss and try to understand his opinion about you in advance.
If youre not convinced, try to provide another person as a reference to that company, like the Human Resources Manager.
If you feel that you are repeatedly hitting a dead end after an interview, you might be a victim of a bad reference.
Check up on your listed references and ask them, indirectly, if employers contacted them and what was said. You might be able to identify the person. But if not, change the whole list.